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In Zekaisivarsi, cases are inflections of substantives that indicate their grammatical roles in a clause. They show relations between a substantive and another word in a clause, such as a substantive or factive.

Development of cases Edit

In Pre-Zekaisivarsi, the typical word order was SOV, meaning that the agent was introduced, then the patient, and then the act. Over time, the need for disambiguation of the roles of multiple substantives increased as the various tribes developed complex social systems. Due to the diversity of the Zekaiseii people and their language, the case systems are not strictly defined.

Description of cases Edit

The particular cases vary according to dialect.

Common Standard Zekaisivarsi Edit

Common Standard Zekaisivarsi uses a system of nominative-accusative alignment in which the subject of both a transitive verb and an intransitive verb is in the nomimative case while the object of a transitive verb is in the accusative case.

Basic cases Edit

The basic cases indicate who performed an action (agent), who experienced the action (patient), and who was in any way affected by the action (indirect object).

Nominative case (jur waiEdit

The nominative case (jur wai - state of bringing about, state of doing) is the case that marks a substantive as a subject of a verb. It is the bare stem of a substantive.

ar wil. Someone goes. ar is in the nominative case because it is the subject of the verb wil.

ar aur ayilSomeone befriends someone else. ar is still in the nominative case because it is the subject.

Accusative case (jur ueraEdit

The accusative case (jur uera - state of suffering, experiencing, undergoing) is the case that marks a substantive as a direct object of a verb.

ar aur ayil Someone befriends someone else. aur is in the accusative case because it is the direct object of the verb ayil which is done by the active subject ar.

ye jzai javaiI love home. jzai is in the accusative case because it is affected by the action javai.

Dative case Edit

The dative case marks a substantive as an indirect object of a verb.

ye zuwi hazai ame. I give you love.

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